International Documents

Churches

Churches, Councils of Churches and other ecumenical groups have produced statements.  You can find many of them at www.cmep.org or
www.Al-bushra.org/

You can also find UCC and Discples statements through at http://globalministries.org/mee/resolutions.html.


Major UN resolutions

A good site for obtaining information about the UN and Palestinian issues is http://domino.UN.org/UNISPAL.NSF

It is often important to know UN resolutions by their number as a way of alluding to their basic content. International agreements are designated by a name or nickname instead of number.   Also you might open the website www.alhaq.org  where you can get a summary and the full contents.

The following are the major UN resolutions by number, the occasion and date and a brief word about content:
(GA refers to a General Assembly resolution and SC refers to the Security Council)

UNGA 181 - (End of British Mandate) November 1947
    A plan to partition Palestine into Arab and Jewish states and to establish Jerusalem as a "corpus separatum under a special international regime"

UNGA 194 (1948)- (Israel declared statehood, war erupted leading to divided Jerusalem and 650,000 Palestinian refugees) May 1948.
    Resolution declared refugees right of return

UNSC 242 - (Israel occupied West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights and Sinai during the Six Day War, Jerusalem is annexed, 600,000 more Palestinian refugees) November 1967.
    UN SEcurity Council called on Israel to withdraw from occupied territories and, in return, Arab states will recognize Israel and end the war.

UNSC 338 - (War broke out) October 1973
    UN Security Council called for cease fire, reaffirmed Resolution 242, called for peace negotiations.

UNSC 1322 - (Provocation by Ariel Sharon and excessive use of force to suppress demonstrations) September 2000
    Security Council called on Israel, still the occupying power, to abide by responsibilities under the Fourth Geneva Convention and for an objective inquiry.

UNSC 1397 - (invasion of Palestinian West Bank cities) March 2002
    Calls for an end to violence and a return to the negotiaing table and affirms the two state solution.

UNSC 1402 - (Israeli invasion of West Bank cities) March 2002
    Calls for withdrawal of Israli troops from Ramallah and other Palestinian cities.

UNSC 1403 - (continued occupation) April 2002
    Security Council demands implementation of 1402 and endorses mission of Colin Powell.

UNSC 1405 - (Restrictions placed on humanitarian aid to Palestinians)  April 2002
    Council calls for lifting of restrictions and welcomes fact-finding team from UN Secretary General in Jenin.

UNSC 1435 - (Violence occurring) September 2002
    Council calls on Israel to withdraw from Palestinian cities.  Palestinians must meet its expressed commitments.

UNSC 1488 - Calls on parties to implement resolution 338.


Other International Agreements

Information and details on International Humanitarian Law is available at www.ICRC.org/IHL.  There is also a good website at www.howstuffworks.com/rules-of-war4.htm which explains the meaning of various terms.

Geneva Conventions - 1949
These Conventions were in response to World War II and meant to prevent similiar atrocities from happening again.
Convention I - Condition of Wounded and Sick in the Armed Forces in the Field
Convention II - Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of the Armed Forces at Sea
Convention III - Treatment of Prisoners of War
Convention IV - Civilian Persons in Times of War

Protocol I was added in 1977 and deals with the protection of victims of international armed conflicts

Protocol II was also added in 1977 and deals with the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts 

The Hague Conventions
of 1954 and 1999 are concerned with the protection of cultural property in armed conflict 


Specific Agreements on Israel/Palestine

Camp David Peace Treaty - September 1978
    President Jimmy Carter invited Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Menachem Begin of Israel to meet.  Israel and Egypt agreed to end the state of war between them, and territory occupied by Israel in Sinai was returned to Egypt establishing the precedent of land-for-peace.

Madrid Conference - October 1991
    Israel and Arab neighbors met in Madrid with U.S. and Soviet Union as co-sponsors.  Parties agreed to continue talking.  Israel began conversations with the P.L.O.

Oslo I - September 13, 1993
    Signed on White House lawn.  Called the Declaration of Principles.  Parties signed principles for continued negotiation to be completed in five years.  U.S. and Russia were witnesses.

Gaza-Jericho Agreement (Cairo Accords) - May 4, 1994

Transfer of Powers - August 1994

Jordan/Israel Peace Treaty - October 1994
    Signed in Arava desert border between Israel and Jordan.  State of war between Israel and Jordan concluded

Oslo II - September 1995
    Interim agreement signed by Israel and PLO.  Seven cities in West Bank received autonomy with Palestinian Authority given security as well as civil control.  Other areas have shared Israeli-Palestinian security control and other areas continue under Israeli control.   These are designated areas A, B, and C respectively.

Hebron Protocol - January 15, 1997
    Palestinian city of Hebron included in Oslo II Interim agreement.   Protocol designates H1 and H2 areas for city.  Palestinian police will assume responsibility for internal security in area H-1(which is only Palestiian) and Israel will retain all responsibility in area H-2 (where both Israelis and Palestinians live).

Wye River Memorandum - October 23 1998
    President Arafat and Prime Minister Netanyahu signed a memorandum designed to move toward Final Status negotiations.  This memorandum was later repudiated by Prime Minister Netanyahu.

Sharm Esh-Sheikh Memorandum - September 9, 1999
    When the Oslo Accord was about to expire this memorandum was to extend the time period.

Camp David Meeting - July 2000
    A meeting was called by President Clinton, although President Arafat requested that it be delayed a few weeks for him to work out some details within his own people.  He also stated that he did not want to be blamed if the meeting failed.  At the end, Mr. Barak and Mr. Arafat did not come to an agreement and the idea was put forth that it was Mr. Arafat's fault.  

Taba Meeting - December 2000
    New ideas were added to Camp David meeting but no decision was made because of upcoming Israeli elections.  Ariel Sharon was elected Prime Minister and nullified all discussions from Camp David and Taba.

Sharm el-Sheikh Fact-Finding Committee (Mitchell Report) 2000 to 2001
    A committee chaired by George J. Mitchell of the USA outlined suggestions for a peace process and called for a monitoring mechanism as well as the end of the seige on Palestinian areas and the expansion of settlements.

The Tenet Truce Plan - June 2001
    Plan to reduce violence on both sides.

The Arab League Peace Plan and the Arab Summit - March 2002
    The Arab League summit offered Israel peace and normal relations with all Arab states in exchange for full withdrawel from all territories seized in 1967 and an independent Palestinian state.

The Road Map - Aptil 2003
    A performance-based roadmap to a permanent two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.  Sponsored by the "Quartet" consisting of the European Union, United States, United Nations and Russia, it designated a schedule of actions with a series of steps to take place simultaneously by both sides moving toward a Palestinian State in 2005.

The Geneva Accord - 2003
    A proposed final status agreement initiated by Yossi Beilin and Yasser Abed Rabbo and signed by a group of Israelis and Palestinians not part of the ruling cadre.  It addresses specific issues but is not an official document.  (See www.Mideastweb.org)

The Annapolis Meeting 2007
     The meeting was called by the USA to follow-up on the Road Map of 2003.  The two-state solution was articulated as a mutually agreed-upon outline for addressing the Israel/Palestine conflict.  A joint statement was produced.

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